Authors: Mohammed E, Browne LD, Kumar A U A, Adeeb F, Fraser AD, Stack AG.
BACKGROUND: Gout is a common inflammatory arthritis associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Under treatment is common in the general population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gout and its treatment among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
METHODS: We conducted a multi-centre cross sectional study of patients (n = 522) who attended specialist nephrology clinics in Ireland. Standardized data collection tool recorded clinical characteristics and medication use at clinic visits and kidney function was assessed with standardised creatinine measurements and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR). The prevalence of gout and the corresponding use of urate lowering therapies (ULT) were determined. Multivariate logistic regression explored correlates of gout expressed as Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Overall prevalence of gout was 16.6% and increased significantly from 7.5% in Stage 1-2 CKD to 22.8% in stage 4-5 CKD, P< 0.005. Prevalence increased with age (P < 0.005) and was higher in men than women (19.1% versus 10.3% P< 0.005). Overall, 67.9% of gout patients with CKD were treated with ULT, and the percentage increased with advancing stage of CKD from 55.6% in Stage 1-2 to 77.4% in Stage 4-5, P<0.005. Multivariable modelling identified men (vs women), OR, 1.95 (0.95-4.03), serum albumin, OR 1.09 (1.02-1.16) per 1 g/L lower, poorer kidney function, OR 1.11 (1.01-1.22) per 5 ml/min/1.73m2 lower, and rising parathyroid hormone levels, OR 1.38 (1.08-1.77) per 50 pg/ml higher as disease correlates.
CONCLUSIONS: Gout is common in CKD and increases with worsening kidney function in the Irish health system. Over two thirds of patients with gout were receiving ULT, increasing to 77% of patients with advanced CKD. Greater awareness of gout in CKD, its treatment and the effectiveness of treatment strategies should be vigorously monitored to improve patient outcomes.
Mohammed E, Browne LD, Kumar A U A, Adeeb F, Fraser AD, Stack AG. Prevalence and treatment of gout among patients with chronic kidney disease in the Irish health system: A national study. PLoS One. 2019 Jan 25;14(1):e0210487. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0210487. eCollection 2019. PubMed PMID: 30682034; PubMedCentral PMCID: PMC6347136.